Item 61 (b) of the provisional agenda**
The Millennium Assembly of the United Nations
Draft resolution referred by the General Assembly at its
United Nations Millennium Declaration
The General Assembly,
Adopts the following Declaration:
United Nations Millennium Declaration
I. Values and Principles
1. We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered
at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000,
at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the
Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more
peaceful, prosperous and just world.
2. We recognize that, in addition to our separate
responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective
responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and
equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty, therefore, to
all the worlds people, especially the most vulnerable and, in
particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs.
3. We reaffirm our commitment to the purposes and
principles of the Charter of the United Nations, which have proved
timeless and universal. Indeed, their relevance and capacity to
inspire have increased, as nations and peoples have become
increasingly interconnected and interdependent.
4. We are determined to establish a just and
lasting peace all over the world in accordance with the objectives and
principles of the Charter. We rededicate ourselves to support all
efforts to uphold the sovereign equality of all States; respect for
their territorial integrity and political independence; resolution of
disputes by peaceful means and in conformity with the principles of
justice and international law; the right to self-determination of
peoples which remain under colonial domination and foreign occupation;
non-interference in the internal affairs of States; respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms; respect for the equal rights of all
without distinction to race, sex, language or religion; and
international cooperation in solving international problems of
economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character.
5. We believe that the central challenge we face
today is to ensure that globalization becomes a positive force for all
the worlds people. For while globalization offers great
opportunities, at present its benefits are very unevenly shared, while
its costs are unevenly distributed. We recognize that developing
countries and countries with economies in transition face special
difficulties in responding to this central challenge. Thus, only
through broad and sustained efforts to create a shared future, based
upon our common humanity in all its diversity, can globalization be
made fully inclusive and equitable. These efforts must include
policies and measures, at the global level, which correspond to the
needs of developing countries and economies in transition, and are
formulated and implemented with their effective participation.
6. We consider certain fundamental values to be
essential to international relations in the twenty-first century.
Freedom. Men and women have the right to live
their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger
and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic
and participatory governance based on the will of the people best
assures these rights.
. Equality. No individual and no nation must
be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal
rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured.
Solidarity. Global challenges must be managed
in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance
with basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who
suffer, or who benefit least, deserve help from those who benefit
Tolerance. Human beings must respect each
other, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language.
Differences within and between societies should be neither feared
nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A
Culture of Peace and Dialogue among all civilizations should be
Respect for nature. Prudence must be shown in
the management of all living species and natural resources, in
accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only in
this way can the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be
preserved and passed on to our descendants. The current
unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be
changed, in the interest of our future welfare and that of our
Shared responsibility. Responsibility for
managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as
threats to international peace and security, must be shared among
the nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally. As
the most universal and most representative organization in the
world, the United Nations must play the central role.
7. In order to translate these shared values into
actions, we have identified key objectives to which we assign special
II. Peace, Security and Disarmament
8. We will spare no effort to free our peoples from
the scourge of war, whether within or between States, which has
claimed more than 5 million lives in the past decade. We will also
seek to eliminate the dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction.
9. We resolve, therefore:
To strengthen respect for the rule of law, in
international as in national affairs and, in particular, to ensure
compliance by Member States with the decisions of the International
Court of Justice, in compliance with the Charter of the United
Nations, in cases to which they are parties.
To make the United Nations, more effective in
maintaining peace and security, by giving it the resources and tools
it needs for conflict prevention, peaceful resolution of disputes,
peacekeeping, post-conflict peace building and reconstruction. In
this context, we take note of the Report of the Panel on United
Nations Peace Operations and request the General Assembly to
consider its recommendations expeditiously.
To strengthen cooperation between the United
Nations and regional organizations, in accordance with the
provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter.
To ensure the implementation, by States
Parties, of treaties in areas such as arms control and disarmament,
and of international humanitarian law and human rights law, and call
upon all States to consider signing and ratifying the Rome Statute
of the International Criminal Court.
To take concerted action against
international terrorism, and to accede as soon as possible to all
the relevant international conventions.
To redouble our efforts to implement our
commitment to counter the world drug problem.
To intensify our efforts to fight
transnational crime in all its dimensions, including trafficking as
well as smuggling in human beings and money laundering.
To minimize the adverse effects of United
Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations; to subject such
sanctions regimes to regular reviews; and to eliminate the adverse
effects of sanctions on third parties.
To strive for the elimination of weapons of
mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons and to keep all
options open for achieving this aim, including the possibility of
convening an international conference to identify ways of
eliminating nuclear dangers.
To take concerted action to end illicit
traffic in small arms and light weapons, especially by making arms
transfers more transparent and supporting regional disarmament
measures, taking account of all the recommendations of the
forthcoming United Nations Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms
and Light Weapons.
To call on all States to consider acceding to
the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling,
Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their
Destruction, as well as the Amended Mines Protocol to the Convention
on Conventional Weapons.
10. We urge Member States to observe the Olympic
Truce, individually and collectively, now and in the future, and to
support the International Olympic Committee in its efforts to promote
peace and human understanding through sport and the Olympic ideal.
III. Development and Poverty Eradication
11. We will spare no effort to free our fellow men,
women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of
extreme poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently
subjected. We are committed to making the right to development a
reality for everyone, and to freeing the entire human race from want.
12. We resolve, therefore, to create an environment
at the national and global levels alike which is conducive to
development and to the elimination of poverty.
13. Success in meeting these objectives depends,
inter alia, on good governance within each country. It also depends on
good governance at the international level, and on transparency in the
financial, monetary and trading systems. We are committed to an open,
equitable, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory multilateral
trading and financial system.
14. We are concerned about the obstacles developing
countries face in mobilizing the resources needed to finance their
sustained development. We will, therefore, make every effort to ensure
the success of the High-level International and Intergovernmental
Event on Financing for Development, to be held in 2001.
15. We also undertake to address the special needs
of the least developed countries. In this context, we welcome the
Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in
May 2001 and will endeavour to ensure its success. We call on the
to adopt, preferably by the time of that
Conference, a policy of duty- and quota-free access for essentially
all exports from the least developed countries;
to implement the enhanced programme of debt
relief for the heavily indebted poor countries without further delay
and to agree to cancel all official bilateral debts of those
countries in return for their making demonstrable commitments to
and to grant more generous development
assistance, especially to countries that are genuinely making an
effort to apply their resources to poverty reduction.
16. We are also determined to deal comprehensively
and effectively with the debt problems of low- and middle-income
developing countries, through various national and international
measures designed to make their debt sustainable in the long term.
17. We also resolve to address the special needs of
small island developing States, by implementing the Barbados Programme
of Action, and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the
General Assembly, rapidly and in full. We urge the international
community to ensure that, in the development of a vulnerability index,
the special needs of small island developing States are taken into
18. We recognize the special needs and problems of
the landlocked developing countries, and urge both bilateral and
multilateral donors to increase financial and technical assistance to
this group of countries to meet their special development needs, and
to help them overcome the impediments of geography, by improving their
transit transport systems.
19. We resolve further:
To halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of
the worlds people whose income is less than one dollar a day and
the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; and also, by the
same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to
reach, or to afford, safe drinking water.
To ensure that, by the same date, children
everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full
course of primary schooling; and that girls and boys will have equal
access to all levels of education.
By the same date, to have reduced maternal
mortality by three quarters, and under-5 child mortality by two
thirds, of their current rates.
To have, by then, halted, and begun to
reverse, the spread of HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other
major diseases that afflict humanity.
To provide special assistance to children
orphaned by HIV/AIDS.
By 2020, to have achieved a significant
improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as
proposed in the "Cities Without Slums" initiative.
20. We also resolve:
To promote gender equality and the
empowerment of women, as effective ways to combat poverty, hunger
and disease and to stimulate development that is truly sustainable.
To develop and implement strategies that give
young people everywhere a real chance to find decent and productive
To encourage the pharmaceutical industry to
make essential drugs more widely available and affordable by all who
need them in developing countries.
To develop strong partnerships with the
private sector, and with civil society organizations, in pursuit of
development and poverty eradication.
To ensure that the benefits of new
technologies, especially information and communication technologies,
in conformity with recommendations contained in ECOSOC 2000
Ministerial Declaration, are available to all.
IV. Protecting our Common Environment
21. We must spare no effort to free all of
humanity, and above all our children and grandchildren, from the
threat of living on a planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities,
and whose resources would no longer be sufficient for their needs.
22. We reaffirm our support for the principles of
sustainable development, including those set out in Agenda 21, agreed
upon at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
23. We resolve, therefore, to adopt in all our
environmental actions a new ethic of conservation and stewardship,
and, as first steps we resolve:
To make every effort to ensure the entry into
force of the Kyoto Protocol, preferably by the tenth anniversary of
the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in
2002, and to embark on the required reduction in emissions of
To intensify our collective efforts for the
management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of
To press for the full implementation of the
Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat
Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or
Desertification, Particularly in Africa.
To stop the unsustainable exploitation of
water resources, by developing water management strategies at the
regional, national and local levels, which promote both equitable
access and adequate supplies.
To intensify cooperation to reduce the number
and effects of natural and man-made disasters.
To ensure free access to information on the
human genome sequence.
V. Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance
24. We will spare no effort to promote democracy
and strengthen the rule of law, as well as respect for all
internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms,
including the right to development.
25. We resolve, therefore:
To fully respect and uphold the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights.
To strive for the full protection and
promotion in all our countries of civil, political, economic, social
and cultural rights for all.
To strengthen the capacity of all our
countries to implement the principles and practices of democracy and
respect for human rights, including minority rights.
To combat all forms of violence against women
and to implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
To take measures to ensure respect for and
protection of the human rights of migrants, migrant workers and
their families, to eliminate the increasing acts of racism and
xenophobia in many societies, and to promote greater harmony and
tolerance in all societies.
To work collectively for more inclusive
political processes, allowing genuine participation by all citizens
in all our countries.
To ensure the freedom of the media to perform
their essential role and the right of the public to have access to
VI. Protecting the Vulnerable
26. We will spare no effort to ensure that children
and all civilian populations who suffer disproportionately the
consequences of natural disasters, genocide, armed conflicts and other
humanitarian emergencies are given every assistance and protection, so
that they can resume normal life as soon as possible.
We resolve, therefore:
To expand and strengthen the protection of
civilians in complex emergencies, in conformity with international
To strengthen international cooperation,
including burden sharing in, and the coordination of humanitarian
assistance to countries hosting refugees; and to help all refugees
and displaced persons to return voluntarily to their homes, in
safety and dignity, and to be smoothly reintegrated into their
To encourage the ratification and full
implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its
Optional Protocols on the involvement of children in armed
conflicts, and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child
VII. Meeting the Special Needs of Africa
27. We will support the consolidation of democracy
in Africa and assist Africans in their struggle for lasting peace,
poverty eradication and sustainable development, thereby bringing
Africa into the mainstream of the world economy.
28. We resolve, therefore:
To give full support to the political and
institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa.
To encourage and sustain regional and
subregional mechanisms for preventing conflict and promoting
political stability, and to ensure a reliable flow of resources for
peacekeeping operations on the continent.
To take special measures to address the
challenges of poverty eradication and sustainable development in
Africa, including debt cancellation, improved market access,
enhanced Official Development Assistance (ODA), and increased flows
of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as well as transfers of
To help Africa build up its capacity to
tackle the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and other infectious
VIII. Strengthening the United Nations
29. We will spare no effort to make the United
Nations a more effective instrument for pursuing all of these
priorities: the fight for development for all the peoples of the
world, the fight against poverty, ignorance and disease; the fight
against injustice; the fight against violence, terror and crime; and
the fight against the degradation and destruction of our common home.
30. We resolve, therefore:
To reaffirm the central position of the
General Assembly as the chief deliberative, policy-making and
representative organ of the United Nations, and to enable it to
play that role effectively.
To intensify our efforts to achieve a
comprehensive reform of the Security Council in all its aspects.
To further strengthen the Economic and
Social Council, building on its recent achievements, to help it
fulfil the role ascribed to it in the Charter.
To strengthen the International Court of
Justice, in order to ensure justice and the rule of law in
To encourage regular consultations and
coordination among the principal organs of the United Nations in
pursuit of their functions.
To ensure that the Organization is provided
on a timely and predictable basis with the resources it needs to
carry out its mandates.
To urge the Secretariat to make the best
use of those resources, in accordance with clear rules and
procedures agreed by the General Assembly, in the interests of all
Member States, by adopting the best management practices and
technologies available and by concentrating on those tasks that
reflect the agreed priorities of Member States.
To promote adherence to the Convention on
the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel.
To ensure greater policy coherence and to
improve better cooperation between the United Nations, its
agencies, the Bretton Woods Institutions, and the World Trade
Organization, as well as other multilateral bodies, with a view to
achieving a fully coordinated approach to the problems of peace
To further strengthen cooperation between
the United Nations and national parliaments through their world
organization, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, in various fields,
including: peace and security, economic and social development,
international law and human rights, democracy and gender issues.
To give greater opportunities to the
private sector, non-governmental organizations and civil society
in general, to contribute to the realization of the
Organizations goals and programmes.
31. We request the General Assembly to review on
a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of
this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic
reports, for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis
for further action.
32. We solemnly reaffirm, on this historic
occasion, that the United Nations is the indispensable common house
of the entire human family, through which we will seek to realize
our universal aspirations for peace, cooperation and development.
We, therefore, pledge our unstinting support for these common
objectives, and our determination to achieve them.